The analysis of future requirements should indicate what steps need to be taken to appoint people from within the organization and what learning and development programmes should be planned. The analysis will also establish how many people will need to be recruited in the absence of qualified employees within the organization and if it is impossible to train people in the new skills in time.
Ideally, internal resourcing should be based on data already available about skills and potential. This should have been provided by regular skills audits and the analysis of the outcomes of performance management reviews. A ‘trawl’ can then be made to locate available talent, which can be accompanied by an internal advertising campaign.
External resourcing requirements can be met by developing a recruitment strategy. The aims of this strategy would be first to make the organization ‘the employer of choice’ in its particular field or for the people it wants to recruit (eg graduates). Secondly, the strategy should plan the best methods of defining precisely what is needed in terms of skills and competencies. Finally, the strategy should be concerned with planning to use the most effective methods of obtaining the number and type of people required. The strategy should be developed as follows:
- Define skill and competency (behavioural) requirements – ideally this should be carried out by the use of systematic skill and competency analysis techniques. These can form the material upon which focused and structured interviews can take place and be used as criteria for selection. They may also indicate where and how psychometric tests could be helpful.
- Analyse the factors affecting decisions to join the organization – these include:
- the pay and total benefits package – this may have a considerable effect on decisions to join the organization but it is by no means the only factor; those set out below can be just as important and even more significant for some people;
- career opportunities;
- the opportunity to use existing skills or to acquire new skills;
- the opportunity to use the latest technology and equipment with which the organization is well supplied (of particular interest to research scientists and engineers);
- access to high level training;
- a responsible and intrinsically rewarding job;
- a belief that what the organization is doing is worthwhile;
- the reputation of the organization as an employer;
- the opportunity the job will provide to further the individual’s career – for example, the scope to achieve and have achievements recognized, increase in employability, or a respected company name to put on a CV.
- Competitive resourcing – this will start from an analysis of the basis upon which the organization competes with other firms for employees. The factors mentioned above should be covered and the aim would be to seek competitive advantage by exploiting those that are superior to those of rivals. One of the factors will be pay. This
may not be the only one but it can be important. It is necessary to track market rates and make a policy decision on where the organization wants to be in relation to the market.
- Alternative strategies for satisfying people requirements – these consist of outsourcing, re-engineering, increasing flexibility skills training, multiskilling and downsizing.
- Recruitment and selection techniques – the strategy should explore methods not only of recruiting the number of people required, but also of finding staff who have the necessary skills and experience, who are likely to deliver the right sort of behaviour and who will fit into the organization’s culture readily. These processes and techniques
will include the use of:
- skills analysis;
- competency mapping;
- the internet and social networks for recruitment;
- structured interviews;
- psychometric testing;
- assessment centres.
The aim of the strategy is to develop the best mix of recruitment and selection tools. It has been demonstrated that a ‘bundle’ of selection techniques is likely to be more effective as a method of predicting the likely success of candidates than relying on a single method such as an interview.