Employee relations are concerned generally with managing the employment relationship and developing a positive psychological contract. In particular they deal with terms and conditions of employment, issues arising from employment, providing employees with a voice, and communicating with employees. Employees are dealt with either directly or through collective agreements where trade unions are recognized. This is an area of HRM where a strategic approach is particularly appropriate. Organizations need to have a clear idea of the route they want to follow in developing a cooperative and productive employee relations climate, one in which the perceptions of management, employees and their representatives about how employee relations are conducted and how the various parties (managers, employees and trade unions) behave when dealing with one another are positive.